Ceramic tiles are thin slabs manufactured through the process of heating and cooling clays, silica, fluxes, colouring with other mineral raw materials. It is generally used as coverings for floors, walls or facades.
Ceramic tiles come in a wide array of colors, sizes, shapes, textures, and finishes. They are square and rectangular in shape, but they also appear in different shapes, like triangles, circles, rhombs and similar to achieve the desired look and feel. Besides size, shape, and design, ceramic tiles differ in technical characteristics based on their use (like wall lining, floor covering, indoor or outdoor), exposed to low temperature, chemical substances and wear and tear.
The classification of ceramic tiles based on shaping Process is:
- Extruded Tiles (Shape A): Further Classified in Split Tiles and Quarry Tiles
- Pressed Tiles (Shape B): Further Classified in Vitrified, Semi Vitrified, Fully Vitrified
- Cast Tiles (Shape C):
The classification of ceramic tiles based on degree of vitrification and water absorption is:
- Glazed Tiles
- Non-Glazed Tiles
- Engobed Tiles
The basic types of ceramic tiles are sinter, terracotta, majolica, tiles with red biscuits, tiles with white biscuit and mosaic.
Best Practice to Check a Quality of Ceramic Tiles on site:
(Best Practice to Check a Quality of Glazed Tiles, Non-Glazed Tiles,Engobed Tiles, Pressed Tiles, Extruded Tiles, and Cast Tiles)
- The size of ceramic tiles should be perfectly square or rectangular. The dimension should be as per actual size and tolerance should not exceed 1mm in length and breadth and tolerance should not exceed 3mm in thickness.
- It should have uniform colour and texture.
- It should be firm enough to resist breaking and cracking.
- Ceramic tiles edges should be sharp and perfectly at right angle, and not broken at corner.
- It should be checked for curvature and warping by putting tiles on the perfectly flat surface.
- The diagonals of Ceramic tiles should be perfect and bothshould measure same in length.
- The top finishing and glazing should be uniform and good. It should not have been chipped off.
- The thickness of ceramic tiles should not be less than 5 mm and corner should not be bent or broken.
- Water absorption of ceramic tiles should not exceed 10% of its dry weight when kept immersed in water for 24 hours.
- The top surface of ceramic tiles should be checked for evenness. The top surface must be smooth and even.
- It should be free from cracks, depressions, holes, specks, spots and cavities. It should be scratch resistant.
- Test should be done to check the resistance of glazing to chemical substances that are used during cleaning in households.
Above are the basic field tests and if you want to really check the material quality, there are certain laboratory test like water absorption, crazing and chemical resistance, etc. In today’s global markets, it is necessary to test all materials in laboratory particularly for large project.