Glass is a transparent hard substance created by the application of enormous amounts of heat to sand or quartz. Glass is an amorphous inorganic, homogeneous transparent or translucent material which can be molded into any shape.
Based on the type of glass, its raw materials are collected and different compositions are sent to manufacturing process. Following are the raw materials for different types of glass.
Collection of Raw Materials:
Types of Glass
|Soda lime glass||Chalk soda ash (Na₂CO₃) and clean fresh sand|
|Potash lime glass||Chalk, potassium carbonate (K₂CO₃) and clean fresh sand|
|Potash lead glass||Litharge (lead monoxide PbO) or lead sesquioxide (Pb₃ O₄), Potassium carbonate (K₂CO₃) or pure sand|
|Common glass||Chalk, salt cake (Na₂SO₄), coke, ordinary sand.|
Preparation of Batch:
Batch preparation stage involves weighing fine ground raw materials that include formers, fluxes, stabilizers and sometimes colorants according to recipe required for the final product and their subsequent mixing to achieve a homogenous composition.
Also Read: History of Glass
Melting in Furnace
Melting of raw materials at high temperature to form a molten glass, is the central main phase in the production of glass. There are numerous ways to melt glass depending on the desired product, its end use, the prevailing commercial factors and the scale of operation.
Fabrication of Glass into Desired Forms
Fabrication of glass techniques include cutting, grinding, laminating, and drilling. Glass fabrication requires polishing, bending, finishing and edging in most of cases. Precision and quality are of the utmost importance in fabrication processes. So that Computer Numerical Control machines are used.
It is a process of slowly cooling hot glass objects after it was formed. It is the process to relieve residual internal stresses introduced during manufacture.
After all the treatment, manufactured glass can be stored as per the required shape & size and then sent it to the outlet store.