## Basic Terms For Paint Ingredients and Chemicals(3/3)

Painting anything makes our surrounding more attractive. It gives an attractive look and protects surfaces of wall, wood, metal, etc. For that, you need to know basic terms of paint ingredients and chemicals.

Terminologies are continued here…

#### 42. Polyester Resin:

Polyester resin is synthetic resin made from polyhydric alcohol and a polybasic acid or anhydride and often dispersed in monomer. They are differentiated in two types.

##### a) Unsaturated Polyester Resin:

An unsaturated polyester made by condensa­tion between polyhydric alcohol and a polybasic acid or anhydride which must include an unsaturated acid or anhy­dride and may also contain some monobasic acid. In prac­tice, such polyester is dissolved in an unsaturated monomer such as a styrene and immediately before use an activator and an accelerator are added. The composition reacts to form a bard tough film, no loss of solvent by evaporation being necessary.

##### b) Saturated Polyester Resin:

A condensation product of saturated polybasic acids or anhydrides with polyols and may also contain monobasic acid.

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#### 43. Polymer:

Polymer is a chemical compound formed by “polymerization” which consists more than one kind of molecules characterised by regular or irregular repletion of one or more types of monomer.

##### a) Homopolymer:

Polymer in which the molecules consist of one kind of chemical unit repeated any number of times.

##### b) Copolymer:

Polymer in which the molecule consists of more than one kind of chemical units, derived from more than one monomer.

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#### 44. Polyurethane Resin:

Polyurethane resin is a synthetic resin obtained from the reaction of a polyhydroxy reactant normally of polyester or polyether type, with polyisocyanate. Polyurethane resins are widely used in applications such as surface coatings, footwear, furniture and packaging. It has properties such as high durability, toughness, easy cleaning and high gloss.

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#### 45. Pre-fabrication Primer:

Pre-fabrication primer is a quick drying primer applied as a thin film to a metal surface cleaning to give protection during the period before and during fabrication.  It should not interfere seriously with conventional welding operations or give off toxic fumes during such operations.

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#### 46. Primer:

The base coat that is applied to a non-painted or prepared substrate to give protection and/or in readiness for subsequent coatings.Applying the right type of primer mainly depend on surface, its condition and painting system to be used.

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#### 47. Putty:

A highly pigmented stiff, a soft, malleable grayish-yellow paste made from ground chalk and raw linseed oil that hardens after a few hours and is used for sealing and filling holes in walls, woods and protective layer to paint primer. It is applied before and after applying of primer.

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#### 48. Resin Natural:

Natural resin is an amorphous thermoplastic solid organic substance obtained from different types of plants as a healing or self-defense mechanism, insects or dug up from the ground (fossil resin). It is characterised by a few distinct features such as a slightly gummy, soft and sticky, are not soluble in water but can be dissolved in organic solvents or vegetable oils. The natural resin can harden up over time and make them suitable for use in paints, varnishes, adhesives, sealants, lacquers and more.Turpentine from the long-leaf pine,  amber, copal, etc. are natural resin.

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#### 49. Retarder:

A component added to paint compositions to slow down a chemical or physical change. For example, a slowly evaporating solvent may be added to paint, varnish or lacquer to retard the setting of the coating film after application.

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#### 50. Rosin:

A natural yellowish solid resin like material obtained as the residue from the preparation of turpentine from the crude oleo-resin of pine trees. Also, known as ‘Colophony’ or ‘Gum Rosin’. They are commercially available in two general type:

• Gum rosin- Gum rosin obtained from living trees
• Wood rosin- Wood rosin obtained from dead wood, stumps, knots, etc.
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#### 51. Sealer:

Sealer is a clear or pigmented liquid used on porous surfaces before painting, which when dried, reduce the absorptive capacity of the surface. It is often known as suction. It is mostly used to prevent any soluble or diffusible matter from ‘bleeding’ into and disfiguring new paint, or to protect the existing paint system from the softening action of solvents in a top coat.

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#### 52. Shellac:

Shellac is a resin obtained from the female lac trees. Lac is purified in yellow or orange as dry flakes and dissolved in alcohol to make liquid shellac. It is widely used in varnishes, paints, sealants, etc.

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#### 53. Solvent:

Solvents are liquid, usually volatile, which are essential in paint industry as an ingredient for various coatings. It is used to dissolve or disperse the film-forming constituents, and which evaporate during drying, and therefore do not become a part of the dried film. They are used to control the consistency and character of the finish and to regulate application properties

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#### 54. Spirit:

Spirit refers to commercial ethyl alcohol, normally sold as industrial methylated spirit. They are derived from the petroleum by-products often found in the form of thin oil-based materials, such as paints and varnishes. They are used as a solvent as an alternative to turpentine for thinning paint and cleaning paint brushes.

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#### 55. Stabilizer:

A small proportion of substance added to paint to retard unwanted chemical or physical changes. For example, small quantities of stabilizers are added to retard the dichlorination of chlorinated rubber or the coagulation of an emulsion

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#### 56. Stainer:

A relatively small proportion of coloured pigments ground in media compatible with paint vehicle added to already prepared paint to modify their colour. With the introduction of latex paints of many types, stainers have been developed which can be used both with organic solvent thinned paints and with water thinned paints. Such dual propose tinters are known as ‘Universal Stainers’ or ‘Universal Tinters’.

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#### 57. Stand Oil:

Stand oil is linseed oil which is used as a drying oil or semi-drying oil in paint. It has been polymerized bodied by heating under vacuum/inert atmosphere, in contrast to ‘Blown Oil’. Stand oils dry to films which are generally tough and more water resistant than those from unbodied oils.  It has almost no tendency to get yellow and is useful for glazing and helps to eliminate brush marks.

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#### 58. Synthetic Resin:

A heterogeneous group of synthetic substances of relatively high molecular mass, produced by polycondensation, polyaddition, polymerization reaction from one or more of simpler/lower molecular mass materials that resemble and share some of the properties of the natural resin. These are designed to achieve superior performance compared to natural resin. Chemically modified natural resin/polymers, such as cellulose acetate or nitrate, hardened casein, ester gum and chlorinated rubber are not considered to be synthetic resins.Acrylic resin, Alkyd resin, Amino resin, Epoxy resin, Polyester resin, Polyurethane resin,

Vinyl resin, etc. are example of synthetic resin.

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#### 59. Thinner:

volatile liquids are added to paints and varnishes to improving the application properties of  the coating. They make the paint thin by lowering the viscosity. They should be miscible with the paint or varnish at ordinary temperatures and should not cause precipitation of the non-volatile portion either in the container or in the film during drying. For some purposes, thinner containing a small proportion of non-volatile material may be used. Often, specific thinners are required by the manufacturer of a coating to prevent damage to coating properties that may occur when an inappropriate thinner is used.

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#### 60. Tints:

The tint is the mixture of the colour of a large proportion of white paintwith a small proportion of coloured paint or stainer. A mixture of colours with white increase lightness and a mixture of colours with black reduces lightness.

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#### 61. Turpentine:

A colourless volatile liquid, distilled from gum turpentine or pine wood, used in mixing paints and varnishes as a solvent.

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#### 62. Varnish:

Varnish is a transparent coating type of paint with a solvent. It is a combination of a drying oil, a resin and a thinner or solvent, and is employed for protection against deterioration and corrosion.Solvent evaporates and leave a hard, transparent, glossy film.

#### Varnish may generally be of three types:

a) LacquersThose which usually form films on evaporation of solvents.

b) Air-drying varnishesThose which usually form films by oxidation, polymerization or by any other chemical reaction at room temperature.

c) Staving varnishes —Those which form films by chemical reaction on application of heat at specified time and temperature.

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#### 63. Vehicle:

The liquid portion of a paint which holds the pigments. It is composed of binder and thinner. It also binds the surface that is to be painted. It simply means it provides the durability, toughness & water proofness to the paint. It also helps to spread the paint ingredients uniformly over the surface to be painted.

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#### 64. Vinyl Resin:

A synthetic resin of thermoplastic type obtained by the polymerization of monomers containing the vinyl compounds. In strict chemical terminology, the description covers not only the polymerized vinyl ester, for example, polyvinyl acetate, but also polystyrene and polyacrylates. Vinyl resins may be applied as solutions in organic solvents, for example, as plastisols, as organo-sols, or in aqueous dispersion, or latex form.

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#### 65. White Spirit:

A clear volatile liquid distilled from petroleum also known as a mineral turpentine. Internationally, however, the preferred term is ‘mineral solvents for paints’ and the description given is that the material shall consist of mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons with certain boiling range. It is used as a common organic solvent or thinner in painting and decorating.

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#### 66. Zinc Dust:

Finely divided zinc metal used as a pigment in zinc-rich and zinc dust/zinc oxide in protective paints for iron and steel.

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#### 67. Zinc Rich Primer:

An anticorrosive primer for iron and steel to inhibit corrosion. Zinc dust is incorporated in it to give electrical conductivity in the dried film and therefore enabling the zinc metal to corrode preferentially to the substrate. It gives the cathodic protection to iron and steel.

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