Paints are manufactured by mixing the various ingredients in well-balanced proportion. Paint is generally made up of following main components:
The base is a solid substance in a fine state that forms the body of paint. It forms the bulk of paint. It conveys the character of the paint. The base usually consists of white lead, red lead, zinc oxide (zinc white), iron oxide, titanium white, aluminium powder, lithophone, etc. The main function of all this material is to make a film of the paint, opaque, harder, and elastic & prevent the formation of shrinkage cracks.
02. Inert Filler or Extender
It is cheap pigment added in a paint to make it more economical and to save the cost of base. The main function of filler is to modify the weight of paint & makes it more durable. Inert fillers are used to impart various physical properties other than colour, i.e. opacity or texture, or simply to make the handling of paint better.
The commonly used inert fillers or extenders are barites (barium sulphate), lithophone, silica, silicate of magnesia or alumina, whiting, gypsum, charcoal, etc. So basically it forms part of base.
03. Vehicle or Binder
It is also known as a binder. It is oil with the base is mixed. It is the liquid substance which holds the paint together & also binds it to the surface that is to be painted. It simply means it provides the durability, toughness, & waterproofness to the paint. It also helps to spread the paint ingredients uniformly over the surface to be painted.
The commonly available binder or vehicle is linseed oil, tung oil, poppy oil, nut oil.
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04. Solvent or Thinner
It is the solvent that can make the paint thin and increase the spread and are also known as thinner. Solvent makes the paint workable and it evaporate during drying of the paint film. The solvent is a usually a volatile substance which provides properties such as smoothness, easy flow, and brushability.
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The function of drier is to accelerate the process of drying. A drier absorbs oxygen from the air and transfer it to the vehicle (linseed oil) in the paint film, which in turns get hardened. It may be either in the form of soluble or paste state.
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06. Colouring Pigment
They are colouring materials added to the paint to impart the desired shade &colour. Colouring pigments are also used to hide the surface imperfections. They protect the paint film by reflecting the ultraviolet light. They also improve the impermeability.
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