## Challenging Site Conditions – Problems and Uses of Special Cements

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During construction, various types of problem arise like you might have to do concretein water or you have an emergency and you want to remove formwork immediately or your site is situated in a saline area subjected to sulphate attack etc. In such cases you cannot use ordinary Portland cement or PPC, as it will not solve your critical challenging problems or allow you to work smoothly on site. Such site condition necessitates the use of special cements meant for special purposes.

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Various types of special cement are available for concrete construction. Each type of special cement has some specific functional objectives in terms of application, performance and durability.

##### Also Read:Different Types of Cement and Their Purposes

Here we suggest the use of special cement’s, which will solve your problems.

### 01.

The concrete structures such as

• Road pavement (thickness of pavement less than 150 mm) around your home or when you want road to open for traffic immediately)
• Precast concrete casting
• Repairing works etc.
Rapid Hardening Portland Cement To achieve high strength in initial stages or structure subjected to early load (For example to open road for traffic immediately) or to reuse formwork again, so as to save on the cost of formwork by multiple uses.

### 02.

The concrete structures which are continuously exposed to high concentration of sulphates such as

• When your home is situated near saline water or in seaside area, the soil is likely to have saline with sulphate more than permissible limits
• Sewage and water treatment plants
• In such case you need to protect your foundation for corrosion on account of sulphates
• Pile foundations
• Food processing industries, petrochemical plants, basements & underground structures, fertilisers & sugar factories, concrete sewers carrying industrial wastes etc.
Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement To withstand sulphate attacks and to prevent corrosion in concrete structures, in future.

### 03.

The concrete structures where mass concreting is required such as

• In a case of large tall apartment buildings, particularly in poor soil, you may need to do raft foundation with a thick slab.
• gravity dams, spillway sections, stilling Basins, Marine structures, large foundations, large rafts, thick pavements etc.
Low Heat Portland Cement The mass concrete always generate heat because of chemical reactions which may lead to shrinkage cracks later on. It is used to control the rate of heat generation in mass concreting to prevent thermal and shrinkage cracks.

### 04.

The concrete structures lying underwater or in running water, In cold & rainy weather such as:

• If you want to build your home  in underwater such as in a lake, river or water logged area or where the ground water table is high (sites near river, lakes etc).
Quick Setting Portland Cement The Initial setting time of this type of a cement is about 5 minutes, therefore, it is used where concrete needs to  set quickly.

### 05.

The concrete structures subjected to high temperatures like

• Fireplace in your home, Refractory lining, furnaces, Interiors of kilns, workshops, Funeral homes, Restaurant’s kitchen etc.
• The concrete structures exposed to dilute solutions of acids such as refineries.
High Alumina Cement To resist abrasion , thermal shocks and acid attacks.

### 06.

The concrete structures subjected to frost actions. Air Entraining Portland  Cement Resistant to severe freezing & thawing actions and to dilute effects of applications of salt for snow and ice removal.

### 07.

Liquid storage tanks, hydraulic structures, water repair works ( to create a bond with the old concrete surface), bridge decks, pavement slabs, in hot weather conditions etc. Expansive Cement It has a self-stressing and shrinkage compensating properties which reduce cracks thereby controlling leaking/dampness later on.

### 08.

Petroleum industries for gas, drilling of oil wells, etc. Oil Well Cement For extreme conditions of temperature and pressure.

### 09.

To fill joints in flooring (Marble flooring, Ceramic tile flooring, Vitrified tile flooring, Porcelain tile flooring etc.) & plumbing, precast ornamental concrete products, interior and exterior decorations etc. White Cement To enhance the architectural & aesthetical view.

### 10.

In wet climatic conditions. Hydrophobic Cement To imparts water repelling properties.

### 11.

Masonry constructions Masonry Cement It has a greater water retaining properties that result in a lower shrinkage and therefore possibility of low cracking.

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