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Footings are critical to the structural safety of the building. Footings are designed based on soil type, type of structure, site topography and other local requirements during design process.
Some of the Common footings used in Construction are described below:-
01. Continuous Wall Footing:
Footing which supports a long masonry or RCC wall is known as continuous wall footing. In this case width of the footing is very small than the length of the footing. it gives continuous vertical support. Basically, it runs throughout the length of the wall.
02. Isolated Footing:
Footing which supports an individual column is known as Isolated footing. In this case, footing may be Single, Stepped or Sloped footings.
03. Combined Footing:
Footing which supports two or more column is known as Combined footing. it is used when two or more columns are close together or two or more individual footing of a column would overlap than provide combined footings. Combined footing may be trapezoidal or rectangular in plan. A Trapezoidal footing is provided when the load of the on column is greater than another column.
04. Strip Footing:
A footing which supports a number of columns in a line is to be combined footing known as strip footing. It is used when the row of a column which are so closely spaced and their spread footings overlap each other. A strip footing is also called as continuous footing.
05. Strap Footing:
When a distance between the two columns supported on combined footing become large than cost increases rapidly, in that case, strap footing may be more economical.
06. Raft Footing:
If loads transmitted by the columns in a structure are so heavy and allowable soil pressure is small than footing size required more area, it may be better to provide continuous footing under all columns and walls such footing is called a Raft Footing.
07. Pile Footing
When the soil having a low bearing capacity or water level of the ground are so high or building in the water like bridges, dams. In that case, Pile footings can be applied.