## Waterproofing Terminology (2/2)

Today the material chemistry has revolutionised the construction industry like all other industries. The improvements in waterproofing materials and technologies have revolutionised the modern construction industry. It is not only with their ease of applications but also longer durability. It has less and easy maintenance aspect. We already discussed waterproofing terminology (1/2) in our article. Here are certain waterproofing basic terms, which are not discussed till.

### Waterproofing Basic Terms

#### 41. Gel:

It is a semisolid jelly like condition of the matter or substance.

#### 42. Grouting:

Grouting is the pumping of a cementitious fluid material into crevices of a cracked material or the interconnected pores of a porous material with a view to enhancing the density/strength of the material. It is normally done to concrete with porosity/voids.

Courtesy - Pixabay

#### 43. Hardener:

It is a substance that enters into a chemical combination with other substances to form a new, more solid material.

#### 44. Hydrophobic:

It is the property of non-wetting or repelling water.

#### 45. Hydrostatic Pressure:

It is the force exerted by water resulting from the total weight of the water. It is the pressure that standing water or water table creates on the surface of the substructure foundation.

#### 46. Impregnation:

It is the technique in which polymeric compound is applied. It seals and fills the void and micro-porosity in a wide variety of materials. This compound is prolonging the lifespan of the treated element.

#### 47. Joint Sealant:

Joint sealant is a compressible material used to exclude water and solid foreign materials from entering the joints.

Courtesy - Pixabay

#### 48. Laitance:

It is a layer of weak and non-durable material containing cement and fines from aggregates brought to the top of oval-wet concrete by bleeding water. This formation of the layer at the top surface is known as laitance.

#### 49. Latex:

It is a natural or synthetic rubber emulsion in the water phase. It is a white fluid in many plants which exudes when the cut and coagulates on exposure to the air.

#### 50. Leaching:

It is the draining out of water soluble salts from concrete due to movement of water. Water-soluble salts are washed out by the action of an extraction of water.

It is the capacity of a structural member to carry loads based on non-capacity destructive evaluation results and their analysis.

#### 52. Maintenance:

Maintenance is a general term for actions taken to ensure that a structure conforms to its original functional performance above a given level of acceptance.

Courtesy - Pixabay

#### 53. Membrane/Coating:

It is a thin, waterproof barrier consisting of the polymeric material which may be prefabricated or applied as a liquid.

#### 54. Non-Destructive:

It is the sampling/testing in laboratory/field without affecting the functional properties of a material and without causing damage/distruction.

#### 55. Passivation:

It is the formation of a protective layer of ferric oxide around embedded reinforcement under highly alkaline environment.

Some corrosion inhibitor helps the formation of a passivation layer on the surface of the material to which they are applied.

#### 56. Patch Repair:

Patch repair is the repair to a portion of a structural member to restore it to its original state.

Courtesy - Pixabay

#### 57. Permeability:

It is the property of the material which allows the fluid through a solid material.

It is a property of material that lets fluids to diffuse through it to another medium without being chemically or physically affected.

#### 58. PH:

It is the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution expressed as negative of the logarithm to the base 10.

#### 59. Plastic Shrinkage:

Shrinkage is the decrease in volume with time. Plastic shrinkage is a shrinkage that takes place before cement paste, mortar, grout, or concrete sets.

#### 60. Polymer:

It is a long chain of molecules formed by the combination of molecules of monomers in presence of an initiator. E.g. many synthetic organic materials used as plastics and resins

#### 61. Polymer Concrete/Mortar:

It is the concrete or mortar in which a resin serves as a binder.

It replaces lime type cement and also known as resin concrete.

#### 62. Polymerisation:

It is a chemical process that combines several monomers to polymer. It is the process of formation of long chain molecules at desired temperature from monomers in the presence of an initiator.

#### 63. Pop Out:

It is a shallow, cortical depression on the surface of the concrete.

#### 64. Porosity:

It is the ratio, usually expressed as a percentage of the volume of voids in materials, to the total volume of a material, including the voids. Porosity is the quality of being porous or full of tiny holes.

#### 65. Pot Life:

It is the amount of the storage time interval after mixing, during which a liquid material can be used without difficulty. It is measured at room temperature.

#### 66. Quality Assurance:

Quality assurance is a system of ensuring that the intended levels of quality on a project are obtained from specified requirement or standard.

Courtesy - Shutterstock

#### 67. Re-alkanisation:

It is the electro-chemical process of infusing alkaline environment in a carbonated concrete around steel reinforcement by converting calcium carbonate into calcium hydroxide.

#### 68. Rebound:

Aggregate and cement or wet shotcrete that bounces away from a surface against which it is being projected.

#### 69. Rehabilitation:

It is the process of repairing or modifying of damage structure to a desired useful condition. This repairing or modifying process is done based on evaluating strength, durability and deficiencies of the structure.

#### 70. Repairs:

It is the process of replacement or correction of deteriorated, damaged or faulty materials, components, or elements of a structure. It is the process of restoring the structure to a good condition.

#### 71. Restraint:

It is the condition that restricts or controls the free movement of fresh or hardened concrete, mortar, or grout and it can be internal and external and may act in one or more directions.

#### 72. Restoration:

It is the action of re-establishing or returning the original appearance, shape and materials of a structure.

#### 73. Retardation:

It is a reduction in the rate of hardening or setting. I.e. an increase in the time required to reach initial and final set, or to develop early strength of fresh concrete, mortar, or grout.

#### 74. Retrofitting:

It is the process of upgrading the existing structure to meet the enhanced structural requirements in terms of load carrying capacity of existing structural element or by introducing additional structural members integral to the existing structure. In brief it is strengthening of structure and making it for the loads for which it was not designed.

#### 75. Scaling:

Scaling is the local cracking or peeling away of the surface concrete or mortar.

Courtesy - Pixabay

#### 76. Seepage:

It is the process of seeping in which uncontrolled admittance of water through interconnected pores or small space or holes.

#### 77. Service Life:

The time or period from the completion of a structure till the structure is no longer usable due to the deterioration process. The service life of the structure is the total period during which it remains in use, or ready to be used.

#### 78. Serviceability:

It is the necessary performance requirement of a structure to meet its intended function. During serviceability, the structure should be structurally sound and should not be considered unfit.

#### 79. Shotcrete:

Shotcrete is concrete or mortar, which is sprayed (applied) on the element or surface by pneumatic pressure with high velocity to give a very dense strong concrete or mortar layer. It is also known as air blown concrete or mortar.

#### 80. Shelf Life:

It is the recommended useful life of the material in which it is fit for consumption or saleable or with acceptable quality.

#### 81. Silane:

It is a solution of a low molecular weight composition of silicon and hydrogen used as penetrating sealer for concrete surfaces.

#### 82. Silicafume/Micro Silica:

It is a highly reactive pozzolana, a by-product of ferrosilicon production. It is also known as micro silica. It is a non-crystalline amorphous polymorph of silicon dioxide, silica.

#### 83. Siloxane:

It is a silicon and oxygen-based compound, also containing carbon and hydrogen used as penetrating sealer for concrete surfaces.

#### 84. Spelling:

Spelling is the loss of strength and integrity of cover concrete with the interior of concrete due to expansive force. Concrete spelling is usually caused by corrosion of the steel reinforcement bars.

Courtesy - Shutterstock

#### 85. Sulphate Attack:

It is the disintegration of concrete due to the formation of expansive compounds as a result of chemical reaction of the constituents of hydrated cement with sulphates ions, present internally or from ingresses from the external source.

#### 86. Strengthening:

It is the measures taken for a deteriorated structure or any of its structural member to restore its designed load carrying capacity.

#### 87. Workability:

Workability is a property of freshly mixed mortar or concrete, which measures the ease of working on it during its placement including compaction and finishing.

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