9 Different Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering

Providing safe accommodation is one of the primary goals of construction. Shelter from the elements, safety, living quarters, personal space, storage, power, and the ability to live and work in comfort are just a few of the many ways buildings contribute to civilisation. Here, we will go over the fundamentals of buildings, such as what is a building, why different types of buildings are needed, what types of buildings exist, and so on. Following is the list of content-

  • What Is A Building?
  • Why Are Different Types of Buildings Needed?
  • What Are The Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering?

Let’s have a detailed look-

What is a Building?


A building is any man-made structure that rests on a foundation and has walls made from architectural cladding systems, floors, roofs, chimneys, plumbing, and other building services, as well as permanent features like a veranda, balcony made from floor grating plastic, cornice, or projection that is attached to or forms a part of a building. The structural components of a building, like the foundation, plinth, slab, wall etc., are the most crucial parts of any building and need to be carefully designed and built to ensure proper functional and structural performance.

Buildings can be homes, offices, shopping malls, hospitals, schools, and anything else you can imagine. Before making a purchase, most homebuyers think about the property’s price, location, market trends, taxes, HOA fees, and general condition. Every consumer has a wish list that includes “must-haves” and “nice-to-haves.”

One of the first choices to be made when purchasing a home is buying an already established structure or building it from the ground up. Most real estate experts agree that prospective purchasers should spend considerable time and energy planning for or designing the perfect home before signing contracts or making down payments.

You can hire a professional real estate agent to look for suitable properties, negotiate prices, and handle the paperwork to simplify things. If your offer is accepted, the closing and subsequent move-in could take a month or two.

Below are some pro tips for choosing the best real estate agent that will ease your work

Why Are Different Types Of Buildings Needed?

Need For Different Types of Building
Need For Different Types of Building

Having the proper framework in place for your construction is important, and this varies from project to project. The building’s job is to withstand whatever load is placed on it without fail.

Before the industrial revolution, most building frameworks were made of wood or stone. Half-timbering was once widely used for construction but gave way to steel as the modern era progressed. When exposed to flames, steel outperforms other materials in terms of strength, durability, and heat resistance. Concrete, another modern material, was widely employed as a building material in the 20th century, and these two developments have brought about a profound revolution in the building industry.

Based on the above material, buildings differed in weight, strength, durability, and design. Each one has different contributions, and the part played by each of them matters in the type of construction.

In this regard, various building structures need to be able to reach equilibrium under the action of loads. This is accomplished by anchoring the structure to the ground in a way that permits the necessary reactions to balance the actions that operate on it. There can’t be any cracking or fissuring in these buildings because of the internal stresses exerted by the elements that make them up. This means that research on the materials’ resistance limits prior to construction is essential.

What Are The Types Of Buildings in Civil Engineering?

The list of types of buildings below is based on the ‘National Building Code of India’, which categorises buildings based on occupancy.

  1. Residential Buildings
  2. Institutional Buildings
  3. Educational Buildings
  4. Assembly Buildings
  5. Business Buildings
  6. Mercantile Buildings
  7. Hazardous Buildings
  8. Storage Buildings
  9. Industrial Buildings

So, these are the different types of buildings; let’s dive in-

01. Residential Buildings

Residential Building
Residential Building

Buildings that provide at least one habitable bedroom, with or without associated kitchens and eating areas, are considered residential buildings. The dwelling’s name and function are both indicative of its significance. If more than 50% of a building’s square footage is devoted to dwelling quarters, it is classified as a residential building.

All homes contain common areas like living rooms and dining rooms, separate bedrooms and bathrooms, and kitchens. According to the ‘National Building Code of India, (Part 4 – Fire and Life Safety)’, lodging or rooming houses, one or two family privet dwellings, Dormitories, apartment houses (flats), hotels are the different types of residential buildings.

When we hear the word “residential building”, the first thing that comes to mind is “Home”. Right? And everyone dreams of owning their own house. So, below are Gharpedia’s expert tips for finding your dream home. You must go through it-

02. Institutional Buildings

Institutional Building
Institutional Building

Institutions are large structures used for various reasons, including medical care for those with physical or mental illness, care for infants and the elderly, and penal or correctional imprisonment where convicts’ freedom is severely limited. Most of these structures have some sort of sleeping quarters for their occupants. Cities typically host one or more civic buildings intended to serve the public in some way. Some private companies operate alongside the government. Many assume that the government owns all hospitals, although that is not always the case.

Municipal structures include most types of institutional structures. This is due to the fact that their primary purpose is to aid the common people and local communities. The ownership of the institutions’ structures might vary from state to state or even from private to private. Hospitals, museums, courts, post offices, prisons, libraries, community centers etc. are all examples of common institutional structures.

03. Educational Buildings

Educational Building
Educational Building

Educational buildings serve as a home for many academic pursuits. All levels of schooling, from pre-kindergarten to college, are covered. Buildings such as schools, colleges, universities, training institutes etc. are prime examples of educational structures. Institutions of learning can be public or private.

04. Assembly Buildings

Assembly Building
Assembly Building

Assembly buildings are the type of public buildings typically constructed for social events. Types of public buildings like hotels, restaurants, clubs, theatres, exposition halls, auditoriums, and so on are all common assembly venues where people congregate for various purposes, including social, religious, and recreational activities. The gathering halls serve various functions for a wide range of social groups. This structure serves as a meeting place for people of all socio-economic backgrounds.

Places of worship, dance halls, dub rooms, passenger stations, terminals for air, surface, and other public transportation services, recreation centers, and stadiums are all included in this category. Theatres, cinemas, banquet halls, town halls, auditoriums, exhibition halls, assembly halls, and museums are all examples of public assembly buildings.

05. Business Buildings

Business Building
Business Building

A business building might be a single building or a cluster of establishments. These can be a single building or a cluster of businesses in a single location. These can be small or large. The primary purpose of these structures is to house various commercial enterprises. Such structures are typically used for business, maintaining vital records and finances, and similar functions. Offices, banks, professional institutions, courthouses, libraries, and similar structures are used for business conduct, maintaining accounts and records, and related activities. Bookkeeping and conducting official business are the primary functions of such a building.

06. Mercantile Buildings

Mercantile Building
Mercantile Building

Wholesale and retail establishments constitute most of the mercantile buildings. Commercial structures fall into this category, including places like convenience stores and shops. Therefore, it is one of the many buildings in society that people use on a regular basis to assist and help others.

07. Hazardous Buildings

Hazardous Building
Hazardous Building

Hazardous buildings are those that are used for the storage, handling, processing, or manufacturing of materials that are toxic to living things and can burn with tremendous velocity and cause harm to health.

In these potentially dangerous buildings, special care is taken to investigate the storage and processing of toxic or explosive materials. These plans are tailored for erecting structures that house and regulate dangerous materials like chemicals, hazardous liquids, and explosives. Their primary applications have been the warehousing, processing, and manufacturing of highly combustible materials, explosive materials or products, and toxic elements. They are also used to house highly corrosive, toxic, or poisonous alkalis, acids, or other liquids or chemicals that produce flame, as well as poisonous, irritant, or corrosive gases.

Hazardous buildings typically feature a robust safety mechanism, and regular people in the community are not permitted to wander under this property because of the security risks. Each of these types of buildings is owned by a distinct governmental or private organization.

08. Storage Buildings

Storage Building
Storage Building

The storage buildings are used for sheltering or storing goods, commodities, merchandise etc. Warehouses, transit sheds, cold storage plants, freight depots, storehouses, truck terminals, marine terminals, garages, hangars, stables, grain elevators, barns etc. are examples of storage buildings.

09. Industrial Buildings

Industrial Building
Industrial Building

Industrial buildings are used to manufacture, process, and assemble goods and materials. This type of building consists of manufacturing units, factories, mills, assembly plants, power plants, gas plants, oil refineries, dairy plants, etc.

If you want to know more about industrial buildings, click on the link below:


After reading this classification of buildings, you should have a much better idea of which of the many possible types of building structures you would like to use for your next house, office, or other structure. And the best part is that you can combine different types of buildings to create the ideal structure for your needs.

You now know all about the different types of buildings in civil engineering as well as the fact that the design of each building differs depending on its purpose. With this knowledge, you must know about the different types of loads that act on buildings.

Different Types of Loads on Structures and Buildings

Image Courtesy: Image 10

Author Bio

Nafisa Nazneen Choudhury – Nafisa Nazneen Choudhury is a Civil Engineer (completed B.E. from Assam Engineering College) and is currently pursuing M.Tech in Structural Engineering at National Institute of Technology, Silchar. She is a Technical Content Writer, having over 3 years of experience and has wrote many articles related to Civil Engineering. She is also a Book Author (Authored – “Dream Tales of NNC: Revenge By Murder”) and her book can be found on Amazon. She is also a Guest Author at Gharpedia. Moreover, she is a certified member at Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) and National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE). She writes her blogs at her website – nnc2017.wordpress.com. She can be reached on LinkedIn.

Do you have query?

Let our experts solve it for you while you rest

I need help to