20 Different Types of Paints for Interior & Exterior Surfaces
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Paints are normally manufactured and marketed by Multinational companies. They normally brand their paints with commercial brand names rather than technical names. Again, there are different types of paints available in the market. The verities of paints based on technical specifications as well as brand names marketed by company confuse the common man very much. One hardly understands the difference between oil paint or emulsion paint, oil paint or distemper paint, silicon paint and rubber paint. Similarly, velvet paint, which is a symbol of sheen or “Apcolite” and “Silk” which are symbol of the high quality brand also confuses the common man. We have discussed sheen and finishes in different articles.
Here we have give the summary of different types of paints based on technical specifications, which will guide you to use the right paint at right time over the right surfaces.
Whitewash is a low-cost paint made from mixture of slaked lime or powdered chalk, size and water used for whitening walls (brick walls, concrete walls, other wall surfaces etc.), woodworks, etc. Sometimes pigments like fevicol are also added in it to make the colourful walls.
02. Oil Paint:
Oil based paints are slow drying paints which consist of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil or oil varnish as the basic vehicle ingredient. The commonly available oils are linseed oil, Tung oil, poppy oil, nut oil. Oil-based paints contain thinners like turpentine, naphtha, Methyl ethyl ketone, etc.
Oil-based paints are thicker and harder. They are also glossy and smoother. They are more durable and stain resistant. The fumes from the oil- based paint are the toxic material which is harmful for health and environment hence less popular choice now days for painting. They are less flexible as compared to emulsion paints and hence not suitable for exterior paints.
03. Emulsion Paint:
Emulsions are defined as a mix of two liquids that don’t mix well.Two liquids can form different types of emulsions. As an example, oil and water can form two type emulsions. The first part is the oil-in-water emulsion, where the oil is in the dispersed phase and water is dispersion medium. The second part is water-in-oil Emulsion, where water is the dispersed phase and oil is the external phase.
Emulsion Paints are basically water based paints. Water is used as a solvent in emulsion paint. Water is a medium where the binder, pigment and additives are dispersed in molecular form. Binders are polymers forming a continuous film on the surface. Binders used in emulsion paints are alkyd resins, acrylic resin, epoxy, etc. It is used for internal as well as an external surface coating of the building. They dry quickly & flexible and hence are suitable for both external as well as internal surfaces.
04. Cement Based Paint:
Cement-based paints are water based paint in which cement forms the base. Cement is the main constituent in cement based paints which is responsible for the hardness and durability of the painted surface. Cement paints do not require oil or other organic matter. Cement Paint can be applied on the exterior as well as interior walls. It is used for painting exterior wall surface mainly for preventing water penetration and reductions of dirt collection. It is suitable for coating concrete as well as decorating indoor and outdoor walls.
05. Enamel Paint:
Enamel paints are oil based paints and with a considerably glossy finish. Enamel Paints consistsof white lead, zinc white, resinous matter and petroleum spirit. Enamel paints are more durable and have hard strong finish. Enamel paints provides excellent coverage and colour retention. Enamel paints have hard, glossy and opaque finish. Enamel paints dry slowly or quickly depending on thinner used.
06. Distemper Paint:
Distemper paints are water based paints. The major constituents of distemper are chalk, lime, water and some colouring pigments if necessary. Distemper Paints are available in powder and paste form. It is cheaper than other paints. Distemper paints can be classified as a one type of better white wash. Distemper paints are used for both interior and exterior walls.
07. Bituminous Paint:
Bituminous paints are made of asphalt bitumen or coal tar which dissolved in mineral spirit or naphtha. Bituminous paints are black in colour but suitable colouring pigments may be added for the desired colour. Bituminous Paints are alkaline resistant hence it is used for under water structure, weather protecting steelwork, waterproofing, wood, concrete and potable water tanks. It is also used for any type of exterior metal work and iron work such as fire escapes, ladders etc.
08. Epoxy Paint:
Epoxy Paints are made from epoxy resin i.e. they form binders.Epoxy resins are thermosetting synthetic resins containing epoxies groups. They are formed by cross-linking reactions of epoxide groups. Epoxy paints are finished material. It is used primarily as a floor covering which forms a hard and shiny surface upon application. Hence these paints are used in commercial building, industrial floors particularly pharmaceutical industry, operation theatres and garages due to its strength and resistance to damage. They serve best when joint less flooring/ bacteria free flooring desired.
09. Anti-Condensation Paint:
Anti-condensation paints are designed to reduce the formation of condensation of moisture under intermittently dry and humid conditions.Such a material normally has a matt textured finish and frequently contains cork or some other heat insulating materials as a filler. Condensation of moisture leads to mould and can damage your walls which doesn’t look good. It also inhibits the fungal and mould growth.
10. Luminous Paint:
A paint which glows in the dark because it contains a substance that emits light for a certain length of time after exposure to an energy source. Types of luminous paint listed below.
a) Fluorescent Paint:
Fluorescent paints are made by adding fluorescent pigments with the largest amount of resin. The pigments are capable of absorbing energy from the blue or ultraviolet end of the spectrum and re-emitting it in the form of light in the visible wavelengths.
b) Phosphorescent Paint:
Phosphorescent Paint contains pigments (phosphorus) which absorb energy at one wavelength and emit it over a period, in the form of light at a longer wavelength in the visible spectrum. It differs from a fluorescent paint in that it continues to glow even after the stimulant is removed.
c) Radioactive ( or self-luminous paint ):
Phosphorescent paint, containing a portion of radioactive compounds and in such paint, the phosphorous is permanently activated by absorbing energy from the bombardment by the radioactive rays and emits light in the visible spectrum.
They are normally used for road and traffic signs and sign boards.
11. Latex Paint:
A paint based on pigment and synthetic resin produced by emulsion polymerization, as the principal constituent of the binder. The word “latex” originally refer to the use of rubber in one form or another as the resin, or solid, in paint. Latex is a white milky liquid exuding from trees like rubber. They can be apply on walls and trim, concrete, wood etc.
12. Lead Paint:
The term applies to any paint, paste, stopping, filling or other material used in painting, which contains more than 5 percent lead as lead oxide (PbO), in its pigment when determined by a certain defined method. They are widely used to paint wooden surfaces in home. Other lead compounds, vivid yellow lead chromate (PbCrO4) are used as coloured pigments. They give the paint its tint, Lead pigments are highly opaque, so that a relatively small amount of the compound can cover a large area. White lead is very insoluble in water, making the paint highly water-resistant with a durable, washable finish.
13. Metallic Paint:
A paint which consists of flecks of aluminium, copper, bronze, stainless steel, or other metals which give a film with appearance of metallic appearance. Such paints are generally used for painting metallic surface.
14. Rubber Paint:
Rubber paint is an emulsion paint having chlorinated rubber as its binder or non-volatile vehicle. They withstand water and other tough conditions. They are used in boats, swimming pools, etc. with a long-lasting alternative that won’t wear down over time. Rubber paint is also one type of latex paint.
15. Aluminium Paint:
Aluminium paint is a coating material which is made by a mixture of oil varnish and aluminium pigment in the form of thin flakes which overlap in the paint film and which reflects the sun’s radiation well and retains the heat in hot-air or hot-water pipes or tanks. The resin helps the paint to flow, and gives it strength and durability, while the aluminium flakes give the paint a shiny, metallic finish. This type of paint generally has a silvery finish, and many manufacturers only produce one shade of aluminium-based paint. They are used to paint a variety of materials, including metals, wood, and masonry.
16. Textured Paint:
Texture paint consists of coarse grains (such as gypsum, sand, etc.) metal, ribbon, lace, leather, etc. with the water-thinned binder used for creating a rough pattern effect on a wall. They have become one of the most popular trends in painting as different types of styles can be created on the wall. They simulate two different sense: Sight and touch. They are often used as an alternative to wallpaper and it is also a great solution to hide uneven and imperfect wall surfaces.
17. Silicone Paint:
Silicone paint is a special type of coating in which alkyd resins are modified by adding silicone. It has excellent durability, toughness, good resistance to cracking and abrasion resistance caused by severe temperature changes. It is mostly used in maintenance paints for steel and concrete, exterior decorative, marine paints, coatings on brass and aluminium, and as a heat-resistant it is used in chimneys, ovens, etc.It repels water on masonry surfaces such as stone and brick. It is also a preferred choice to prevent corrosion in industrial structure from harsh corrosive environment. Certain silicone paints are transparent and hence recommended for cladding like exposed concrete, brick walls etc.
18. Zinc-Rich Paint:
Zinc-rich paint is made from a suitably high amount of zinc dust or zinc powder with organic or inorganic binders. It is mostly applied on top coat on steel or other metallic surfaces to prevent continuous risk of corrosion from the harsh environment.
19. Anti-Corrosive Paint:
Anti-corrosive paint is a composition of corrosion resistant pigments such as zinc chromate, lead chromate or red lead. It protects the metal components against degradation due to moisture, salt spray, oxidation or exposure to a various environmental and industrial chemical. This type of paint is mostly applied on iron or steel products.
20. Fungicidal Paint:
A paint which discourages growth of fungi on its dry applied film. The fungicidal properties are normally conferred by the addition of special additives; although certain pigments, such as zinc oxide, commonly used in paints may themselves contribute the fungicidal properties of the paint.